Pool Definitions

1) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP): A chemical reaction between two sanitizing agents, i.e. Corona Discharge Ozone and UV light, that combine to create hydroxyl radicals (·OH). AOP systems provide an upper-echelon sanitation solution when properly configured.

2) Advanced Plasma Gap:DEL Ozone's proprietary Corona Discharge ozone generating cell technology.

3) Algae: An aquatic plant that grows in water and on submerged surfaces. Algae can be free floating in the water or cling to surfaces such as pool walls and ladders.

4) Algaecide: An agent that destroys algae as well as airborne spores.

5) Alkalinity: The capacity of an aqueous solution to neutralize an acid. Alkalinity acts as a buffer if any changes are made to the water's pH value. Maintaining proper alkalinity levels will keep waters pH stable.

6) Alternative Sanitizers: Alternative sanitizers describe sanitation solutions other than chlorine and bromine, which are traditionally used to sanitize pools. Examples of alternative sanitizers are ozone and UV generators.

7) Antimicrobial: Produced agents that kill microorganisms or stops their growth.

8) Backflow: A plumbing term to describe an unwanted flow of water that occurs in the opposite direction it is intended for.

9) Bacteria: Microscopic living organisms that are capable of causing infections and disease. Examples include E.Coli and salmonella.

10) Balanced Water: Pool water that is "balanced" has proper levels of pH, total alkalinity, and calcium hardness. Pool water needs to be balanced to prevent damage and to ensure proper sanitation.

11) Biofilm: A large quantity of bacteria that is living together, which produces a "film" that is noticeable on pool surfaces. Biofilm is especially attracted to wet or damp surfaces.

12) Bromine: A chemical element that is used to sanitize pool water. It is similar to Chlorine with more stability at higher temperatures, but is more expensive, less active, and breaks down quickly when exposed to sunlight.

13) Calcium Carbonate: Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound that is the driving force behind how soft or how hard swimming pool water is.

14) CE:  A top certification authority that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area.

15) Center for Disease Control (CDC): The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services.

16) CFH Airflow: Airflow measured in cubic feet per hour.

17) Check Valve: A valve that only allows liquids or gas to flow through it in one direction. Available and rated by size and relative pressure.

18) Chemical By-Product: Chemical compounds created during a chemical reaction, where one chemical breaks down or combines with other substances to create new chemical compounds that were not present before. By-products are often seen as waste materials.

19) Chloramines: Irritants that form when chlorine bonds with organic materials such as sweat or urine. It is chloramines, rather than chlorine, that cause eye and skin irritation in pools and spas.

20) Chlorinator: Any, dispenser, feeder, or generator that distributes chlorine into water.

21) Chlorine: A strong smelling gas that is used to clean water. Chlorine kills microorganisms by breaking through the cell walls and destroying inner enzymes, proteins, and processes. Some microorganisms, such as Cryptosporidium, are chlorine-resistant and require advanced sanitation techniques, such as ozone, to be utilized.

22) Clarity: The observed amount of clearness of water.

23) Coagulant: The properties of a chemical that assemble together to make a body of water appear cloudy.

24) Contact Vessel: An ozone contact vessel is a tank that throughout mixes ozone with water to allow adequate time for the ozone to sanitize the water.

25) Contaminants: A polluting or poisonous substance that does not belong in an environment.

26) Coping: The stone or concrete material used to cap the pool shell wall.

27) Corona Discharge: An electrical discharge that superheats a gas (such as oxygen) and energizes and transforms particles of the gas into plasma. Lightning is an example of corona discharge.

28) Cryptosporidium Parvum (Crypto): Cryptosporidium Parvum is a parasite that causes watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever, with symptoms that last between 1 to 2 weeks. Cryptosporidium is a dangerous parasite that is resistant to chlorine.

29) CT: The concentration of ozone in water multiplied by the time of exposure. The CT at a given temperature is used to estimate pathogen inactivation. 

30) Disinfectant: A chemical agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms that are causing harm.

31) Disinfection By-Products (DBPs): Chemical, organic, and inorganic substances that can form during the reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic matter in the water.

32) Dissolved Oxygen: Dissolved Oxygen is the amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) that is dissolved in the water.

33) E.Coli: A bacteria that develops in contaminated water, which is commonly found in the intestines. Exposure to harmful strains of E.Coli bacteria can cause severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting.

34) Effluent: The water that flows out of the pool pump, through the filter, heater, and any treatment equipment, and then returns to the pool.

35) EPA Establishment Number: The purpose of an Environmental Protection Agency identification number is to provide a unique product number for regular registrations, distributor registrations, Special Local Need registrations, and Experimental Use Permits.

36) Filter (reference to pools/spas): Dirty water is pumped through the pool filter, which is the first step in the pool plumbing to ensure large amounts of dirt and debris are filtered out before the water flows through other plumbing, such as the water heater.

37) Flocculent: Flocculation agents, such as ozone, neutralize the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces that keep colloids apart and suspended throughout water, causing the colloids to clump up for easy removal. Flocculation is a very important part of the process in water treatment to ensure clean and safe water.

38) Flow Rate: The volume of fluid that passes through a point or area during a particular unit of time.

39) Gallons Per Minute (GPM): The volume of liquid, in gallons, that passes through a specific point over the course of a minute.

40) Germicidal UV (UV-C): Technology that uses Ultraviolet light at a specific wavelength (optimally 254nm) to disrupt the DNA of viruses and bacteria exposed to the UV light.

41) Giardia: One of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. Symptoms include intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia is resistant to chlorine, and must be eradicated by an advanced sanitation system, such as an ozone generator.

42) Head Loss: When pushing liquid through a pipe, head loss describes the amount of pressure energy that is lost to friction between the liquid and the pipe.

43) Hydroxyl Radicals: Hydroxyl radicals are formed when ozone and UV technology are combined. They are the most powerful oxidizing agent available, are highly reactive, and immediately destroy contaminants on contact.

44) Impeller: A swimming pool pump impeller is what creates the flow from your pool to a filter and returns out.

45) Inactivation Disinfectant: Inactivation disinfectants cause viral inactivation, leaving the virus present, but unable to replicate and infect anything any further.

46) Influent: The plumbing line that leads from the pool or spa to the filter equipment.

47) Injector Manifold: A pipe that has multiple openings to allow water flow and ozone injection into a body of water.

48) Inorganic Contaminants: Outside elements or compounds found in water. Can refer to suntan lotion, oils, perfumes, and other non-natural substances in pools and spas.

49) Log Reduction: A measurement that displays the number of microbes eliminated from a particular area (or volume of water) through disinfection. 1 log reduction would mean that the number of germs is 10x smaller, a 2 log reduction provides 100x less germs, and 3 log reduction means that germs have been effectively reduced by 1,000x.

50) Microorganisms: A dangerous microscopic organism, such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus.

51) Mixing Degas Vessel (MDV): Prevents virtually all ozone bubbles from returning to the pool, eliminating bubble noise and visibility. MDVs prevent damage to pool covers, pool surfaces, drains, and other pool-related components.

52) Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC): The Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) is a voluntary guidance document based on science and best practices that assists local and state authorities and the aquatics sector make swimming and other water activities healthier and safer.

53) National Sanitation Foundation (NSF): A highly respected, independent laboratory that tests, audits, certifies, trains and consults for the food, water, health science, sustainability and consumer product sectors.

54) NSF 50: The National Sanitation Foundation ANSI 50 code is an established standard for equipment used in swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, and other recreational water facilities that dictates that a said product has met the requirements for health effects, safety, design and construction, as well as performance and durability. It is the ultimate 3rd party validator for pools and spas.

55) NSF P308: The National Sanitation Foundation's standard for safety and efficacy associated with ozone sanitation systems used in conjunction with Jetted Bathtubs and/or Pedicure Footbaths.

56) O2: The acronym for the chemical element of oxygen; the most abundant element in the earth's crust and one of the most important in supporting life on Earth.

57) O3: The acronym that identifies the ozone molecule. This molecule is formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in that it is made up of three oxygen atoms (O3).

58) Organic Contaminant: Contaminants that are sourced from organic materials, such as dirt, plants, perspiration, and urine.

59) Oxidation: Oxidation occurs when oxygen is combined with a compound to create a reaction. Combining oxygen with water contaminants through ozone enables contaminants to be effectively oxidized, i.e. destroyed.

60) Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP): The measurement of chlorine’s ability to oxidize contaminants in the pool water.

61) Ozonation Process: Ozone is composed of 3 oxygen atoms. One of these oxygen atoms is very unstable and will attach itself with foreign substances. When it comes in contact with this oxidizable substance, it destroys the substance and the oxygen atom, which leaves behind the ozone molecule, effectively returning it to the 2-oxygen atom state, which is the same oxygen we breathe in the air.

62) Ozonator: A device that generates and infuses ozone into water.

63) Ozone Creation: Ozone is created by splitting an oxygen molecule (O2) into two single oxygen atoms (O1) using UV light or an electric current. These free oxygen atoms (O1) then bond with other oxygen molecules (O2) to form ozone (O3).

64) Ozone Disinfection: Using ozone as the primary mechanism for inactivating/destroying organic (viruses, bacteria, sweat, urine) and inorganic contaminants, such as metals.

65) Ozone Dose: The relative amount of ozone measured on a parts per million (ppm) basis. 1PPM is 1 part ozone for every 1,000,000 parts of water. A higher dosage means more ozone in the water.

66) Ozone Output: The amount of ozone released through an ozone generator, which is typically measured in grams per hour (g/hr). A high ozone output ensures well balanced water quality when used in conjunction with a chlorine residual of 0.5 - 1.0ppm in residential pools.

67) Ozone Residual: Residual ozone is a small amount of ozone that remains in water after passing through the ozonator, eventually either destroying pool contaminants or transforming back into oxygen.

68) Ozone Sanitation: A highly powerful and effective water sanitation method that destroys 99.9% of contaminants and to ensure public safety.

69) Particulate: A general term to describe any foreign material in the water, which is usually free-floating and contributes to a cloudy water.

70) Parts Per Million (PPM): The measurement of a substance in relation to the volume of water on scale of 1:1M. For example, 1PPM is 1 part ozone for every 1,000,000 parts of water.

71) Pathogen: A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause infection and disease.

72) Potential of Hydrogen (pH): A numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Properly balancing pH in a pool, for example, is necessary to avoid multiple problems, including cloudy water, scaly deposits, and corroded surfaces and pool fittings.

73) Primary Disinfection: The main disinfection agent responsible for destroying harmful bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms in the water.

74) Protozoa: A large group of single-celled organisms that that live in water.

75) Quartz Sleeve: A tube made of quartz that encapsulates a UV lamp. This tube allows light to penetrate and protects the UV lamp from breakage.

76) Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs): A wide variety of infections, such as gastrointestinal, skin, ear, respiratory, eye, neurologic, and wound infections. The most commonly reported RWI is diarrhea. Diarrheal illnesses are caused by germs, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Shigella, norovirus and E. coli.

77) REDOX Potential: Redox Potential, or ORP, is a measure of the cleanliness of the water and its ability to break down contaminants.

78) Residual: The remaining amount of a primary substance that is left over after the primary substance has completed its job. Examples include chlorine residual or ozone residual.

79) Sanitizer: An agent used on objects, surfaces, and living tissues to destroy harmful disease causing organisms.

80) Secondary Disinfection: Secondary disinfection systems destroy chlorine-resistant organisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These systems are designed and validated to achieve a minimum 3-log (99.9 percent) reduction in the number of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a single pass, and must be validated by a third party, preferably NSF.

81) Shock Treatment: This involves the super-chlorination of a body of water, typically a pool. Proper water balance and filtration should be checked prior to shocking to ensure the shock works as it should.

82) Side Stream Injection: A method of injecting ozone into water that takes a side stream of the main flow to be treated, and, by means of a booster pump and venturi, injects ozone into the water.

83) Skimmer: A device that captures floating debris, such as leaves, flower petals, dirt, twigs, and dead insects, from the pool's surface before the waste can sink to the bottom of the pool.

84) Suction Side: The water inlet location of a pump.

85) Supplemental Disinfection: Aquatic venues that do not require secondary disinfection systems may install supplemental treatment systems for the purpose of enhancing overall system performance and improving water quality. Supplemental disinfection systems will not destroy chlorine-resistant organisms.

86) Swimmer/Bather Waste: Contaminants introduced into pool water which are directly attributable to swimmers, such as suntan lotion, sweat, urine, and fecal matter.

87) Test Kit: A helpful kit that is used to test water balance and sanitation.

88) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): A measure of materials that have dissolved in the water. High TDS levels can cause multiple problems.

89) Total Alkalinity: The measure of alkaline substances in the water. If any changes are made to the water that could raise or lower the pH value, alkalinity acts as a buffer, protecting the water and its life forms from sudden shifts in pH.

90) Turbidity: The cloudiness or haziness seen in the water that can be caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.

91) Turnover: The amount of time it takes to move water through the filter and back through again in a pool. Eight hour turnover times are the standard for residential pools.

92) TÜV Rheinland: One of the leading laboratories that providers product testing and certifications for the worldwide marketplace.

93) Ultraviolet (UV) Sanitation: A method of water sanitation that uses UV light to inactivate contaminants and reduces harmful microorganisms to safe levels for public safety.

94) Underwriters Laboratories (UL): An American safety consulting and certification company that operates worldwide. UL certifies, validates, tests, verifies, audits, and provides education across a variety of compliance and regulatory standards.

95) UV Ozone: A method for generating ozone through UV light. Since UV ozone needs more energy to produce ozone, and can only produce 1/10th of the amount of ozone that Corona Discharge does, this is a subpar method of ozone generation compared to the favorable Corona Discharge method.

96) UV 254: The wavelength measurement of UV light that provides maximum germicidal effectiveness. UV light that is at a wavelength of 254 nanometers is referred to as UV-C.

97) Venturi Injector: A device that creates a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet ports, which initiates ozone suction through a suction port.

98) Virus: An infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

99) Water Conditioning: Conditioned or "soft" water is water that is low in calcium and magnesium. Conditioned water does not form soap scum or calcium deposits, nor does it inhibit the lathering action of soaps.

100) Water Hardness: Water described as “hard” means it is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of its tendency to cause mineral buildup in water pipe and heating systems

101) Weir: A floating weir acts as the gatekeeper to the pool skimmer. The weir raises and lowers its level to match the water level in a pool or spa so that only debris floating on the pool surface enters the skimmer.


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